PHARMACOLOGY

THE UNIQUE PHARMACOLOGY OF BRILINTA

BRILINTA PHARMACOLOGY IS DIFFERENT THAN THAT OF THIENOPYRIDINES1

  • BRILINTA belongs to a different chemical class than other oral antiplatelets (OAPs) and has different pharmacological effects1

THE FIRST AND ONLY OAP IN A CHEMICAL CLASS CALLED CYCLO-PENTYL-TRIAZOLO-PYRIMIDINE (CPTP)1

CPTP THIENOPYRIDINES
BRILINTA2 CLOPIDOGREL3 PRASUGREL4
REVERSIBLY INTERACTS WITH THE P2Y12 RECEPTOR YES NO NO
ACTIVE WITHOUT METABOLISM YES NO NO
METABOLISM INDEPENDENT OF CYP2C19 GENOTYPE YES NO YES
PRIMARY CYP ENZYME FOR METABOLISM 3A4 2C19 3A4 AND 2B6
  • It is not known how pharmacology or chemical class correlates to clinical efficacy or safety results2
  • Ticagrelor and its active metabolite are approximately equipotent2

WARNING: (A) BLEEDING RISK, (B) ASPIRIN DOSE AND BRILINTA EFFECTIVENESS

A. BLEEDING RISK

  • BRILINTA, like other antiplatelet agents, can cause significant, sometimes fatal bleeding (see below for full Boxed WARNING on bleeding risk)

B. ASPIRIN DOSE AND BRILINTA EFFECTIVENESS

  • Maintenance doses of aspirin above 100 mg reduce the effectiveness of BRILINTA and should be avoided
  • Avoid use of BRILINTA in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Severe hepatic impairment is likely to increase serum concentration of ticagrelor, and there are no studies of BRILINTA in these patients
  • Avoid use with strong CYP3A inhibitors and strong CYP3A inducers. BRILINTA is metabolized by CYP3A4/5. Strong inhibitors substantially increase ticagrelor exposure and so increase the risk of adverse events. Strong inducers substantially reduce ticagrelor exposure and so decrease the efficacy of ticagrelor
  • Patients receiving more than 40 mg per day of simvastatin or lovastatin may be at increased risk of statin-related adverse events
  • Monitor digoxin levels with initiation of, or change in, BRILINTA therapy

PHARMACOKINETICS2

ABSORPTION
  • Absorption of ticagrelor occurs with a median tmax of 1.5 hours (range 1.0-4.0). The formation of the major circulating metabolite AR-C124910XX (active) from ticagrelor occurs with a median tmax of 2.5 hours (range 1.5-5.0)
  • The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor is about 36% (range 30-42%). Ingestion of a high-fat meal had no effect on ticagrelor Cmax, but resulted in a 21% increase in AUC. The Cmax of its major metabolite was decreased by 22% with no change in AUC. BRILINTA can be taken with or without food
  • BRILINTA as crushed tablets mixed in water, given orally or administered through a nasogastric tube into the stomach, is bioequivalent to whole tablets (AUC and Cmax within 80-125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX) with a median tmax of 1.0 hour (range 1.0-4.0) for ticagrelor and 2.0 hours (range 1.0-8.0) for AR-C124910XX
DISTRIBUTION
  • The steady-state volume of distribution of ticagrelor is 88 L. Ticagrelor and the active metabolite are extensively bound to human plasma proteins (>99%)
METABOLISM
  • CYP3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for ticagrelor metabolism and the formation of its major active metabolite. Ticagrelor and its major active metabolite are weak P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors. The systemic exposure to the active metabolite is approximately 30-40% of the exposure of ticagrelor
EXCRETION
  • The primary route of ticagrelor elimination is hepatic metabolism
  • The primary route of elimination for the major metabolite of ticagrelor is most likely to be biliary secretion
  • The mean t1/2 is approximately 7 hours for ticagrelor and 9 hours for the active metabolite

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION FOR BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) 60-MG AND 90-MG TABLETS

WARNINGS:

A. BLEEDING RISK

  • BRILINTA, like other antiplatelet agents, can cause significant, sometimes fatal bleeding
  • Do not use BRILINTA in patients with active pathological bleeding or a history of intracranial hemorrhage
  • Do not start BRILINTA in patients undergoing urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery
  • If possible, manage bleeding without discontinuing BRILINTA. Stopping BRILINTA increases the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events

B. ASPIRIN DOSE AND BRILINTA EFFECTIVENESS

  • Maintenance doses of aspirin above 100 mg reduce the effectiveness of BRILINTA and should be avoided

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • BRILINTA is contraindicated in patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage or active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage. BRILINTA is also contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity (eg, angioedema) to ticagrelor or any component of the product

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Dyspnea was reported more frequently with BRILINTA than in patients treated with control agents. Dyspnea from BRILINTA is often self-limiting
  • Discontinuation of BRILINTA will increase the risk of MI, stroke, and death. When possible, interrupt therapy with BRILINTA for 5 days prior to surgery that has a major risk of bleeding. If BRILINTA must be temporarily discontinued, restart as soon as possible
  • Ticagrelor can cause ventricular pauses. Bradyarrhythmias including AV block have been reported in the post-marketing setting. Clinical trials excluded patients at increased risk of bradyarrhythmias not protected by a pacemaker, and they may be at increased risk of developing bradyarrhythmias
  • Avoid use of BRILINTA in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Severe hepatic impairment is likely to increase serum concentration of ticagrelor and there are no studies of BRILINTA in these patients
  • In patients with Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT): False negative results for HIT-related platelet functional tests, including the heparin-induced platelet aggregation (HIPA) assay, have been reported with BRILINTA. BRILINTA is not expected to impact PF4 antibody testing for HIT

ADVERSE REACTIONS

  • The most common adverse reactions (>5%) associated with the use of BRILINTA included bleeding and dyspnea

DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Avoid use with strong CYP3A inhibitors and strong CYP3A inducers. BRILINTA is metabolized by CYP3A4/5. Strong inhibitors substantially increase ticagrelor exposure and so increase the risk of adverse events. Strong inducers substantially reduce ticagrelor exposure and so decrease the efficacy of ticagrelor
  • As with other oral P2Y12 inhibitors, co-administration of opioid agonists delay and reduce the absorption of ticagrelor. Consider use of a parenteral anti-platelet in ACS patients requiring co-administration
  • Patients receiving more than 40 mg per day of simvastatin or lovastatin may be at increased risk of statin-related adverse events
  • Monitor digoxin levels with initiation of, or change in, BRILINTA therapy

SPECIAL POPULATIONS

  • Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended

INDICATIONS

BRILINTA is indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or a history of myocardial infarction. For at least the first 12 months following ACS, it is superior to clopidogrel. BRILINTA also reduces the risk of stent thrombosis in patients who have been stented for treatment of ACS.

BRILINTA is indicated to reduce the risk of a first MI or stroke in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at high risk for such events. While use is not limited to this setting, the efficacy of ticagrelor was established in a population with type 2 diabetes.

DOSING

In the management of ACS, initiate BRILINTA treatment with a 180-mg loading dose. Administer 90 mg twice daily during the first year after an ACS event. After one year administer 60 mg twice daily.

In patients with CAD but no prior stroke or MI, administer 60 mg twice daily.

Use BRILINTA with a daily maintenance dose of aspirin of 75-100 mg.

Please read full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS, and Medication Guide.

References: 1. BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2020. 2. Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al; for the PLATO Investigators. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(11):1045-1057 and Supplementary Appendix. 3. Sahlén A, Varenhorst C, Lagerqvist B, et al. Outcomes in patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel after acute myocardial infarction: experiences from SWEDEHEART registry. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(44):3335-3342. 4. Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al, for the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Steering Committee and Investigators. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800. 5. Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Simon T, et al; for the THEMIS Steering Committee and Investigators. Ticagrelor in patients with stable coronary disease and diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(14):1309-1320.

References: 1. BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2020. 2. Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al; for the PLATO Investigators. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(11):1045-1057 and Supplementary Appendix. 3. Sahlén A, Varenhorst C, Lagerqvist B, et al. Outcomes in patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel after acute myocardial infarction: experiences from SWEDEHEART registry. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(44):3335-3342. 4. Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al, for the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Steering Committee and Investigators. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800.

References: 1. BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2020. 2. Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Simon T, et al; for the THEMIS Steering Committee and Investigators. Ticagrelor in patients with stable coronary disease and diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(14):1309-1320. 3. Fingertip Formulary.® July 11, 2020.

ACS=acute coronary syndrome; CV=cardiovascular; MI=myocardial infarction; PEGASUS=Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin; PLATO=PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes; SWEDEHEART=Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies; THEMIS=Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in DiabEtes Mellitus Patients Intervention Study; T2D=type 2 diabetes.

ACS=acute coronary syndrome; CV=cardiovascular; MI=myocardial infarction; PEGASUS=Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin; PLATO=PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes; SWEDEHEART=Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies.

ACS=acute coronary syndrome; ARR=absolute risk reduction; ARI=absolute risk increase; CABG=coronary artery bypass graft; CI=confidence interval; Hb=hemoglobin; Hct=hematocrit; HR= hazard ratio; K-M=Kaplan-Meier; PLATO=PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes; RRR=relative risk reduction.